No surprise that the website of a town hall devote a paragraph to the promotion of the companies installed in its territory, but Alesón has plenty of reasons to do this. This small rioja town of 117 inhabitants has the largest density business of the country. Located near Nájera, and about twenty minutes from Logroño, 34 companies were active in the population to 1 of January of 2014, which represents a ratio of 290 companies per 1,000 inhabitants.
This emerges from the collection and subsequent analysis of the municipal data of the Central Companies Directory (CCD) published by the INE in a format that is very accessible. The query of this information requires you to search the province by province and download the records into several files, which it then had to be joined into a single database. The number of companies was crossed then with the latest figures from the municipal register to January 1, 2014 [descargue aquí los datos].
After Alesón is situated Beniparrellwith a density of 266 businesses per 1,000 inhabitants. Given its proximity to the city of Valencia, the valencian community, with nearly 2,000 neighbors, is surrounded of industrial estates, what makes in their 3,68 square kilometers of surface has 522 companies installed.
With 80 companies per 1,000 inhabitants, Barcelona is the province with the highest density business
Fernando Javier Crecenteprofessor , Department of Economics and Business administration of the University of Alcalá, explains by e-mail the importance of the polygons in order to facilitate the access to raw materials and other supplies; hence, the industries to be installed in these areas “in order to save costs of production, reduce times in the stocks and avoid the risk of manipulation.”
Also, companies are looking for in the industrial estates feedback and partner with other ancillaries. In this way, the different elements of the production chain are located very close to each other, facilitating their complementarity and lowering costs.
Barcelona and Huelva, the two ends
With 80 companies per 1,000 inhabitants, Barcelona is the province with the highest density of business. Three other regions of the this peninsular (Girona, Lleida and the Balearic islands) are among the first five in this section. Madrid appears in the third position, with 77,55 societies. Despite the leadership of these provinces, Crecente warns that the crisis has caused a reduction of this advantage.
In this sense, it highlights the high-density business, a good part of the municipalities bordering with France. For the professor of the University of Alcalá, this circumstance is explained by the strategic situation border, which promotes the installation of companies in the sectors of transport and telecommunications, as well as export companies and international trade. “The innovative effort and the increased competitiveness of these companies have favored the stabilization of industrial fabric,” stresses Increasing.
If the northeast of the peninsula concentrates the highest density of business in the country, the opposite end is characterized by the opposite phenomenon. So, Cadiz and Huelva recorded 45 businesses per 1,000 inhabitants, ahead of only the autonomous cities of Melilla (44,86) and Ceuta (42,43). This low concentration extends for the greater part of the provinces of the South and also on the border between Asturias and León.
Crecente says that these territories is close to the national average in the years preceding the crisis, but the economic deterioration of the country has slowed this evolution. “The regions are in the process of adjustment of its business structure, as in the boom period had oversized the tissue business with companies that, with the advent of the crisis, demonstrated little competitive” she points out.
Also, the teacher puts special emphasis on the average small size the Spanish company, which has led to your judgment, “not only a brake on the productivity and the competitiveness of the greater part of the regions in the long term, but the start of a new process divergence between the Spanish regions”.
Physical Capital and technological low-intensity
The data of the CCD also shows the differences in the tissue business of the provinces [descargue aquí los datos]. At the national level, four out of every ten companies belong to the sector services, a percentage similar to that of companies trade. This structure resembles that of other developed countries, although Spain has some characteristics that differ from the european states that are most advanced.
“In recent years has consolidated the importance of the sector of the construction, much higher than all the countries of the euro zone, while the contribution of the industry Spanish is one of the lowest in the set of european countries, in particular if it is compared with Germany”, explains Fernando Javier Crecente.
The professor of the University of Alcalá also emphasizes on the preponderance of the hospitality in the Spanish business fabric, with all the consequences that this entails: “The specialized enterprise of the Spanish economy continues to be based on activities of low intensity in physical capital and technology, such as the services of commercial distribution and the hospitality and restoration”.
This business structure varies from one province to another. Thus, while more than half of the companies in madrid are dedicated to the services sector, trade is the activity most common in Huelva, Jaén, Cádiz and Badajoz, with a percentage very close to 50%. For its part, the industry reaches its maximum in Albacete, La Rioja and Álavawhile building the own thing in Teruel and Guadalajara.
“The specialization pattern appears influenced historically by the conditions geographic of the territories,” says Crecente, at the time you mention installation costs and the existence of an adequate network of infrastructure as other factors that determine the installation of a society in a territory or another.
The university professor also makes reference to the economic advantages and prosecutors of regional Governments and municipalities to attract companies, particularly in areas close to big cities, business, as can be seen in the provinces that surround Madrid.
Not surprisingly, the attraction and establishment of enterprises in a area to boost the economy of that territory through two pathways: increasing the income tax Administration and promote employment among the citizens.
Update 18:16 hours
Methodological note: as stated in the methodology, the Central Directory of Enterprises, does not count the number of companies dedicated to the agricultural production and fisheries, the administrative services of the Central Administration, Autonomous and Local (including Social Security), the activities of the communities of owners and domestic service.