What is a Mortgage?


A mortgage is a debt that is secured by a borrower's real property. The term mortgage is derived from the Law French word used in Britain in the Middle Ages. "Mortgage" refers to the pledge that is created when the loan is made and the borrower provides collateral for the loan. The mortgage process includes several steps, including getting preapproved for a loan, completing the application process, and loan processing.

Preapproval process

If you are interested in buying a house, you may want to know the preapproval process for mortgage. This is the process in which a lender evaluates your financial information and makes a preliminary decision about whether you will be approved for the mortgage. Gathering this information beforehand can save you a lot of time, especially when you are already under contract. While most lenders offer online preapproval, others still require paper applications.

Steps to getting a mortgage

First, you must get pre-approved for a mortgage. To do this, find a lender, fill out an official application, and gather the required documents. A credit report will be run to determine your overall financial standing. You must list down any income sources you receive, such as social security payments, military benefits, alimony, child support, and any commissions or overtime you may earn. Collect bank and investment statements as well as two years of tax returns and any outstanding debt statements.

Types of mortgages

There are several types of mortgages, but the most common is the conventional loan, which is offered by almost every mortgage lender. These loans are not government-backed and require a credit score of 620 or higher. Those with good credit and stable employment can qualify for conventional loans. However, if the borrower spends more than 36% of their income on their mortgage, they will probably be ineligible for conventional loans.

Loan processing stage

After a loan application is accepted and the buyer agrees to the terms of the agreement, the "paperwork" stages of the mortgage process begin. Depending on the current market conditions, this process can take anywhere from 45 to 90 days to complete. Loan processors perform various checks and verifications, such as income, assets, and employment verification, to make sure the borrower is eligible for the loan. Then, the loan file goes to underwriting for approval.

Flexible payment options

Flexible payment ARMs were popular when home prices were rising fast. They allowed homeowners to enjoy a low introductory interest rate that quickly doubled to a higher rate. These loans may not have been as bad as many people think, but they did make it harder for some people to afford their mortgages. These mortgages also came with a negative amortization cap, which limited minimum payments to 110% to 125% of the original loan amount.