The Purpose of Reproduction of Living Things and Their Kinds

KOMPAS.com – The purpose of reproduction of living things is to keep their species from becoming extinct. Reproduction of living things is divided into several types.

Reproduction in animals

Reproduction in animals is divided into two, mating and not mating.

1. Reproduction by mating

Sexual reproduction is also known as sexual reproduction. Based on the location of fertilization of the egg by the sperm cell, sexual reproduction in animals is divided into two types.

  • Fertilization outside the body: The fusion of the egg and sperm takes place outside the body of the parent. For example, fish and frogs.
  • Fertilization inside the body: The fusion of the egg and sperm takes place inside the body of the parent. For example, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

In addition, based on the type of fetal development, reproduction in animals is divided into three types.

  • Oviparous: animals reproduce by laying eggs. For example, chickens and turtles
  • Viviparous: animals that reproduce by giving birth. Examples are cows, lions, and goats
  • Ovoviviparous: animals that reproduce by laying eggs and giving birth. Usually the animal develops inside the egg, but still inside the mother’s body. The fetus gets food reserves from the egg, not from the mother. After the fetus matures, it is born by its mother. Examples are stingrays and several types of snakes.

2. Reproduction without mating

Reproduction without mating is also known as vegetative reproduction. This reproduction occurs in lower animals. Examples are budding in Hydra and fragmentation in planarian worms.

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Read also: Characteristics of Ovipar Animals

Reproduction in plants

1. Reproduction by mating

This process occurs by means of pollination between pollen and the stigma. Pollen will enter the ovary and meet the egg. This fertilization will form the fruit and seeds.

2. Reproduction without mating

This type of reproduction is called vegetative reproduction. Some ways of vegetative reproduction in plants and examples are as follows:

  • Layered tubers: onion and garlic
  • Tuber stems: potatoes
  • Shoots: banana and bamboo
  • Rhizome: rhizome plants such as ginger, turmeric, and kencur
  • Geragih (stolon): creeps on the ground like a strawberry
  • Spores: ferns.

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