A scientific article published in The Conversation, reproduced this week by What’s up and written by academics and researchers from the East Anglia University, it states that although the symptoms of Covid-19 may be different between vaccinated people and those who are not protected, there are some signs that can be similar and, most importantly, that There are certain elements that increase the possibility of infection among those who are on the full vaccination schedule.
Vassilios Vassiliou, Senior Clinical Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine; Ciaran Grafton-Clarke, also a clinical academic fellow at the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR); and Ranu Baral, visiting researcher (Academic Foundation Doctor FY2), state that according to the study of Covid symptoms, the five most common symptoms of a breakthrough infection They are headache, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, and loss of smell. Some of these are the same symptoms experienced by people who have not been vaccinated.
However, other two most common symptoms in the unvaccinated (fever and persistent cough) become much less common once you have received the injections. Also, Covid-19 after vaccination has been described as feeling like a cold to many.
Why would the vaccinated have a milder disease? According to the article published in The ConversationAlthough vaccines do not block the infection, they “seem to lead to fewer virus particles in their body”, something that has not yet been confirmed.
Among the factors that can increase the risk of contracting the disease in vaccinated people, according to this article, are: the type of vaccine, the time elapsed after vaccination, the type of variant and the immune system of each individual influence.
1. Type of vaccine: Relative risk reduction is a measure of how much a vaccine reduces the risk of someone developing Covid-19 compared to someone who was not vaccinated. Clinical trials found that the Moderna vaccine reduced a person’s risk of developing symptomatic Covid-19 by 94%, while the Pfizer vaccine reduced this risk by 95%. The Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca vaccines performed worse, reducing this risk by approximately 66% and 70% respectively (although the protection offered by the AstraZeneca vaccine appeared to increase to 81% with a longer interval between doses).
2. Time elapsed since vaccination: It is becoming increasingly clear that the time since vaccination is also important and is one of the reasons why the debate over booster shots is growing in intensity.
Early research, still in prepress (and therefore still to be reviewed by other scientists), suggests that the protection of the Pfizer vaccine decreases during the six months after vaccination. Another preprint from Israel also suggests that this is the case. It is too early to know what happens to the effectiveness of the vaccine beyond six months in twice vaccinated, but it is likely to be further reduced.
3. Variants: Another important factor is the variant of the virus you are dealing with. The risk reductions mentioned above were largely calculated by testing vaccines against the original form of the coronavirus. But when faced with the alpha variant, Public Health England data suggests that two doses of Pfizer vaccine are slightly less protective, which reduces the risk of contracting Covid-19 symptoms by 93%. Against Delta, the protection level drops even further, to 88%. The AstraZeneca vaccine is also affected in this way.
The Covid Symptom Study supports all of this. Their data suggests that in the two to four weeks after receiving your second dose of Pfizer, you are about 87% less likely to have Covid-19 symptoms when faced with Delta. After four to five months, that number drops to 77%.
4. Immune system: It is important to remember that the above figures refer to the average risk reduction in a population. Your own risk will depend on your own immunity levels and other factors specific to the person (such as how exposed you are to the virus, which could be determined by your job).
Immune fitness generally declines with age. Long-term medical conditions can also affect our response to vaccination. Therefore, older people or people with compromised immune systems may have lower levels of protection induced by the Covid-19 vaccine, or they may see their protection diminish more quickly.
A few days ago, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a study showing that people who were not fully vaccinated this spring and summer (autumn and winter in Chile) they were 11 times more likely to die from Covid-19, and more than 10 times more likely to be hospitalized, than those who were fully vaccinated.
“From April 4 to July 17, a total of 569,142 (92%) cases of Covid-19, 34,972 (92%) hospitalizations and 6,132 (91%) deaths associated with this disease were reported among people who did not complete the vaccination schedule. Among those who were vaccinated with all doses, there were 46,312 (8%) contagion cases, 2,976 (8%) hospitalizations and 616 (9%) deaths, in the 13 states examined as part of the new study, according to the CDC.
In Alabama, Utah, Colorado, and the other 10 states included in the analysis, “rates of Covid-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths were substantially higher in people who were not fully vaccinated compared to fully vaccinated people ”, indicates the published text.
During the press conference in which they unveiled this study, CDC Director Rochelle Walensky noted that this research “provides further evidence of the power of vaccination.”
Considering the presence and dominance of the Delta variant, Walensky said that the cases in the last two months, those who were not vaccinated were four and a half times more likely to contract the disease caused by the Sars-CoV-2 virus. They were also more than 10 times more likely to be hospitalized, and 11 times more likely to die from the disease than those who had been inoculated.
“Vaccination works and will protect us from the serious complications of Covid-19,” he said.
To date, just over 53% of the population in the United States is fully vaccinated, and nearly 63% of Americans have received at least one dose.
A new study by researchers from the University of Sao Paulo (USP) showed that the Sars-CoV-2 virus, which causes Covid-19, affects the functioning of the male reproductive system, specifically it damages the testicles.
Jorge Hallak, andrologist and teacher from the Faculty of Medicine of this university and also, coordinator of the Men’s Health Studies Group of the Institute for Advanced Studies, has been monitoring male patients who were infected with the virus since the beginning of last year and in them, he has seen that hormonal and fertility tests remain impaired for months after recovery.
The changes that have been registered in the quality of the semen and in the hormones of the patients who had Covid-19 have also been seen in those who had the disease mildly and even asymptomatically, so the damage is not related to the severity of the respiratory condition caused by the virus.
The research found that the ability to move and fertilize sperm was reduced between 8% and 12%, when the normal was over 50%, staying for almost a year after being infected. The level of the hormone testosterone also decreased after infection and if healthy men register between 300 and 500 nanograms per deciliter of blood, post-Covid patients did not exceed 200.
Another study published earlier this year, showed that in 26 patients, more than half had inflammation in the epididymis, the organ in which sperm mature and are stored.
According to Hallak, men who have been infected (adolescents, young adults and men of reproductive age) should seek a specialist to control their testicular volume, measure testosterone and other hormones for at least two years after infection.
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